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Diabetes

多肽/蛋白质生物标志物和糖尿病治疗

胰腺中多肽/蛋白质对葡萄糖动态平衡的影响

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VIP

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The Role of Incretins in Glucose Homeostasis and Diabetes Treatment

Insulin levels is reduced and became a central issue in the development of T2DM. Incretins or DPP4 inhibitor improve the insulin release from pancreas

GIP and GLP-1 are secreted after food ingestion, and they stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Once released, GIP and GLP-1 are subject to degradation by DPP4 on lymphocytes and on endothelial cells of blood vessels.

Glucose is transported into pancreatic β-cells by facilitated diffusion. High levels of intracellular glucose in pancreatic β-cells also stimulates Ca2+-independent pathways that further increase insulin secretion.  
Binding of GLP-1 to its receptor promotes insulin release via intermediates such as PKB, and also increases  β-cell mass via improved cell survival and decreased apoptosis.

Post-translational processing of proglucagon in the intestinal L cell and the pancreatic α cell. PC1/3 is responsible for the processing of proglucagon in the L cell to release GLP-1 and GLP-2.

Kim W, Egan JM. Pharmacol Rev. 2008 Dec;60(4):470-512. Epub 2008 Dec 12.

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Cardioprotective properties of omentin-1 in type 2 diabetes: evidence from clinical and in vitro studies.

Greulich S, Chen WJ, Maxhera B, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59697. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059697. Epub 2013 Mar 29.

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The clinical utility of C-peptide measurement in the care of patients with diabetes.

Jones AG, Hattersley AT. Diabet Med. 2013 Feb 18. doi: 10.1111/dme.12159. [Epub ahead of print]

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Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide-2 stimulates glucose-induced insulin secretion in vivo and in vitro.

Moin AS, Yamaguchi H, Rhee M et al, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Nov 30;428(4):512-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.10.073. Epub 2012 Oct 27.

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Adrenomedullin is up-regulated in patients with pancreatic cancer and causes insulin resistance in β cells and mice.

Aggarwal G, Ramachandran V, Javeed N et al, Gastroenterology. 2012 Dec;143(6):1510-1517.e1. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.08.044. Epub 2012 Sep 6.

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Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is one of the most abundant proteins secreted by human adipocytes and induces insulin resistance and inflammatory signaling in muscle and fat cells.

Famulla S, Lamers D, Hartwig S et al, Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Jun;35(6):762-72. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2010.212. Epub 2010 Oct 12.

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Visfatin regulates insulin secretion, insulin receptor signalling and mRNA expression of diabetes-related genes in mouse pancreatic beta-cells.

Brown JE et al, J Mol Endocrinol. 2010 Mar;44(3):171-8. doi: 10.1677/JME-09-0071. Epub 2009 Nov 11.


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