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Immunomodulatory Peptides Library (L-013)

Designed to Regulate the Homeostasis of Immune System (Last updated: )

Mitochondrial protein-derived cryptides: Are endogenous N-formylated peptides including mitocryptide-2 components of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns?

Recently, much attention has been paid to "non-classical" bioactive peptides, which are fragmented peptides simultaneously produced during maturation and degradation of various functional proteins. We identified many fragmented peptides derived from various mitochondrial proteins including mitocryptide-1 and mitocryptide-2 that efficiently activate neutrophils. These endogenous, functionally active, fragmented peptides are referred to as "cryptides". Among them, mitocryptide-2 is an N-formylated cryptide cleaved from mitochondrial cytochrome b that is encoded inmitochondrial DNA. It is known that thirteen proteins encoded in mitochondrial DNA are translated in mitochondria as N-formylated forms, suggesting the existence of endogenous N-formylated peptides other than mitocryptide-2. Here we investigated the effects of N-formylated peptides presumably cleaved from mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins other than cytochrome b on the functions of neutrophilic cells in order to elucidate possible regulation by endogenous N-formylated cryptides. Four N-formylated cryptides derived from cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 4, 5, and 6 among twelve peptides from mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins, efficiently induced not only migration but also β-hexosaminidase release, which is an indicator of neutrophilic phagocytosis, in HL-60 cells differentiated into neutrophilic cells. These activities were comparable to or higher than those induced by mitocryptide-2.  Although endogenous N-formylated peptides that are contained in mitochondrialdamage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) have yet to be molecularly identified, they have been implicated in innate immunity. Thus, N-formylated cryptides including mitocryptide-2 are first-line candidates for the contents of mitochondrial DAMPs to promote innate immune responses. This article is protected by copyright.

Marutani T, Hattori T, Tsutsumi K et al., Biopolymers. 2015 Nov 24. doi: 10.1002/bip.22788. [Epub ahead of print]

Cathelicidins positively regulate pancreatic β-cell functions.

Cathelicidins are pleiotropic antimicrobial peptides largely described for innate antimicrobial defenses and, more recently, immunomodulation. They are shown to modulate a variety of immune or nonimmune host cell responses. However, how cathelicidins are expressed by β cells and modulate β-cell functions under steady-state or proinflammatory conditions are unknown. We find that cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) is constitutively expressed by rat insulinoma β-cell clone INS-1 832/13. CRAMP expression is inducible by butyrate or phenylbutyric acid and its secretion triggered upon inflammatory challenges by IL-1β or LPS. CRAMP promotes β-cell survival in vitro via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and by modulating expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins: p-Bad, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL. Also via EGFR, CRAMP stimulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion ex vivo by rat islets. A similar effect is observed in diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Additional investigation under inflammatory conditions reveals that CRAMP modulates inflammatory responses and β-cell apoptosis, as measured by prostaglandin E2 production, cyclooxygenases (COXs), and caspase activation. Finally, CRAMP-deficient cnlp-/- mice exhibit defective insulin secretion, and administration of CRAMP to prediabetic NOD mice improves blood glucose clearance upon glucose challenge. Our finding suggests that cathelicidins positively regulate β-cell functions and may be potentially used for intervening β-cell dysfunction-associated diseases.-Sun, J., Xu, M., Ortsäter, H., Lundeberg, E., Juntti-Berggren, L., Chen, Y. Q., Haeggström, J. Z., Gudmundsson, G. H., Diana, J., Agerberth, B. Cathelicidinspositively regulate pancreatic β-cell functions.

Sun J, Xu M, Ortsäter H et al., FASEB J. 2015 Nov 2. pii: fj.15-275826. [Epub ahead of print]

Recent Advances in Peptide Immunomodulators.

With the continued rise in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, there is an immense need for the development of new therapeutic agents. Host-defensepeptides (HDPs) offer a unique alternative to many of the current approved antibiotics. By targeting the host rather than the pathogen, HDPs offer several benefits over traditional small molecule drug treatments, such as a slower propensity towards resistance, broad-spectrum activity and lower risk of patients developing sepsis. However, natural peptide structures have many disadvantages as well, including susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, significant costs of synthesis and host toxicity. For this reason, much work has been done to examine peptidomimetic structures, in the hopes of finding a structure with all of the desired qualities of an antibiotic drug. Recently, this research has included synthetic constructs that mimic the behavior of HDPs but have no structural similarity to peptides. This review article focuses on the progression of this field of research, beginning with an analysis of a few prominent examples of natural HDPs and moving on to describe how the information learned by studying them have led to the current design platforms.

Zerfas BL, Gao J, Curr Top Med Chem. 2015 Jul 1. [Epub ahead of print]

Desmoglein 2 depletion leads to increased migration and upregulation of the chemoattractant secretoneurin in melanoma cells.

During development and progression of malignant melanoma, an important role has been attributed to alterations of cell-cell adhesions, in particular, to a "cadherin switch" from E- to N-cadherin. We have previously shown that a subtype of melanoma cells express the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 2 as non-junction-bound cell surface protein in addition to classical cadherins. To study the role of desmoglein 2 in melanoma cells, melanoma lines containing high endogenous amounts of desmoglein 2 were depleted of the protein by RNA interference. Transwell migration and scratch wounding assays showed markedly increased migration upon desmoglein 2 suppression whereas proliferation and viability remained unaltered. In gene expression profiles, desmoglein 2 depletion was associated with overexpression of migration-related genes. Strongest overexpression was found for secretogranin II which has not been reported in melanoma cells before. The bioactive peptide derived from secretogranin II, secretoneurin, is known to exert chemoattractive functions and was demonstrated here to stimulate melanoma cell migration. In summary, we show that desmoglein 2 expression attenuates migration of melanoma cells. The mechanism of desmoglein 2 impaired cell migration is mediated by downregulation of secretogranin II. Loss of desmoglein 2 increases expression of secretogranin II, followed by an enhanced migratory activity of melanoma cells. Our data add a new pathway of regulating melanoma cell migration related to a desmoglein 2 - secretogranin II axis.

Peitsch WK, Doerflinger Y, Fischer-Colbrie R et al., PLoS One. 2014 Feb 18;9(2):e89491. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089491. eCollection 2014.

From endocrine to rheumatism: do gut hormones play roles in rheumatoid arthritis?

Chen CY, Tsai CY. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Feb;53(2):205-12. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ket255. Epub 2013 Jul 23.

Neuropeptide receptors as potential drug targets in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

Cross-talk between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems exists via regulator molecules, such as neuropeptides, hormones and cytokines. A number of neuropeptides have been implicated in the genesis of inflammation, such as tachykinins and calcitonin gene-related peptide. Development of their receptor antagonists could be a promising approach to anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy. Anti-inflammatory neuropeptides, such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, urocortin, adrenomedullin, somatostatin, cortistatin, ghrelin, galanin and opioid peptides, are also released and act on their own receptors on the neurons as well as on different inflammatory and immune cells. The aim of the present review is to summarize the most prominent data of preclinical animal studies concerning the main pharmacological effects of ligands acting on the neuropeptide receptors. Promising therapeutic impacts of these compounds as potential candidates for the development of novel types of anti-inflammatory drugs are also discussed.

Pint¨¦r E1, Pozsgai G, Hajna Z, Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Jan;77(1):5-20. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12097.

Neuropeptides as pleiotropic modulators of the immune response.

Although necessary to eliminate pathogens, inflammation can lead to serious deleterious effects in the host if left unchecked. During the inflammatory response, further damage may arise from potential autoimmune responses occurring when the immune cells and molecules that respond to pathogen-derived antigens also react to self-antigens. In this sense, the identification of endogenous factors that control exacerbated immune responses is a key goal for the development of new therapeutic approaches for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Some neuropeptides that are produced during the ongoing inflammatory response have emerged as endogenous anti-inflammatory agents that could collaborate in tuning the balanced steady state of the immune system. These neuropeptides participate in maintaining immune tolerance through two distinct mechanisms: by regulating the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, and by inducing the emergence of regulatory T cells with suppressive activity against autoreactive T cell effectors. Indeed, a functioning neuropeptide system contributes to general health, and alterations in the levels of these neuropeptides and/or their receptors lead to changes in susceptibility to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recently, we found that some neuropeptides also have antimicrobial and antiparasitic actions, suggesting that they could act as primary mediators of innate defense, even in the most primitive organisms. In this review, we use the vasoactive intestinal peptide as example of an immunomodulatory neuropeptide to summarize the most relevant data found for other neuropeptides with similar characteristics, including adrenomedullin, urocortin, cortistatin and ghrelin.

Souza-Moreira L1, Campos-Salinas J, Caro M, Gonzalez-Rey E, Neuroendocrinology. 2011;94(2):89-100. doi: 10.1159/000328636. Epub 2011 Jul 7.

The galanin peptide family in inflammation.

The immune system defends the organism against invading pathogens. In recent decades it became evident that elimination of such pathogens, termination of inflammation, and restoration of host homeostasis all depend on bidirectional crosstalk between the immune system and the neuroendocrine system. This crosstalk is mediated by a complex network of interacting molecules that modulates inflammation and cell growth. Among these mediators are neuropeptides released from neuronal and non-neuronal components of the central and peripheral nervous systems, endocrine tissues, and cells of the immune system. Neuropeptide circuitry controls tissue inflammation and maintenance, and an imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory neuropeptides results in loss of host homeostasis and triggers inflammatory diseases. The galanin peptide family is undoubtedly involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes, and the aim of this review is to provide up-to-date knowledge from the literature concerning the regulation of galanin and its receptors in the nervous system and peripheral tissues in experimental models of inflammation. We also highlight the effects of galanin and other members of the galanin peptide family on experimentally induced inflammation and discuss these data in light of an anti-inflammatory role for this family of peptides.

Lang R, Kofler B, Neuropeptides. 2011 Feb;45(1):1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2010.10.005. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

Chromogranin A-derived peptides are involved in innate immunity.

New endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from chromogranin A (CgA) are secreted by nervous, endocrine and immune cells during stress. They display antimicrobial activities by lytic effects at micromolar range using a pore-forming mechanism against Gram-positive bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. These AMPs can also penetrate quickly into neutrophils (without lytic effects), where, similarly to "cell penetrating peptides", they interact with cytoplasmic calmodulin, and induce calcium influx via Store Operated Channels therefore triggering neutrophils activation. Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritis are bacteria responsible for severe infections. We investigated here the effects of S. aureus and S. enteritis bacterial proteases on CgA-derived peptides and evaluated their antimicrobial activities. We showed that the Glu-C protease produced by S. aureus V8 induces the loss of the AMPs antibacterial activities and produces new antifungal peptides. In addition, four antimicrobial CGA-derived peptides (chromofungin, procatestatin, human/bovine catestatin) are degraded when treated with bacterial supernatants from S. aureus and S. enteritis, whereas, cateslytin, the short active form of catestatin, resists to this degradation. Finally, we demonstrate that several antimicrobial CgA-derived peptides are able to act synergistically with antibiotics against bacteria and fungi indicating their roles in innate defense.

Aslam R1, Atindehou M, Lavaux T, Curr Med Chem. 2012;19(24):4115-23.

AcSDKP regulates cell proliferation through the PI3KCA/Akt signaling pathway.

The natural tetrapeptide acetyl-N-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (AcSDKP) is generated from the N-terminus of thymosin-β4 through enzymatic cleavage by prolyl oligopeptidase (POP). AcSDKP regulation of proliferation of different cells is implicated in hematopoiesis and angiogenesis. This tetrapeptide present in almost all cells was recently detected at elevated concentrations in neoplastic diseases. However, previously reported in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that AcSDKP does not contribute to the pathogenesis of cancers. Here we show that exogenous AcSDKP exerts no effect on the proliferation of actively dividing malignant cells. Using S17092, a specific POP inhibitor (POPi), to suppress the biosynthesis of AcSDKP in U87-MG glioblastoma cells characterized by high intracellular levels of this peptide, we found that all tested doses of POPi resulted in an equally effective depletion of AcSDKP, which was not correlated with the dose-dependent decreases in the proliferation rate of treated cells. Interestingly, addition of exogenous AcSDKP markedly reversed the reduction in the proliferation of U87-MG cells treated with the highest dose of POPi, and this effect was associated with activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. However, extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation was unaltered by S17092 and AcSDKP co-treatment. Knockdown of individual PI3K catalytic subunits revealed that p110α and p110β contributed differently to AcSDKP regulation of U87-MG cell proliferation. Disruption of p110α expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) abrogated AcSDKP-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of p110β expression exhibited no such effect. Our findings indicate for the first time that the PI3KCA/Akt pathway mediates AcSDKP regulation of cell proliferation and suggest a role for this ubiquitous intracellular peptide in cell survival.

Hu P, Li B, Zhang W et al., PLoS One. 2013 Nov 7;8(11):e79321. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079321. eCollection 2013.

The antimicrobial peptides derived from chromogranin/secretogranin family, new actors of innate immunity.

Chromogranins/secretogranins are members of the granin family present in secretory vesicles of nervous, endocrine and immune cells. In chromaffin cells, activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors induces the release, with catecholamines, of bioactive peptides resulting from a natural processing. During the past decade, our laboratory has characterized new antimicrobial chromogranin-derived peptides in the secretions of stimulated bovine chromaffin cells. They act at the micromolar range against bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and are non-toxic for the mammalian cells. They are recovered in several biological fluids involved in defence mechanisms (human serum, neutrophil secretions and saliva). These new antimicrobial peptides demonstrate the major role of the adrenal medulla in innate immunity. In this review we focus on the antimicrobial peptides derived from human and bovine chromogranin A (CGA), chromogranin B (CGB) and secretogranin II (SGII) emphasizing their direct action against pathogens and their effects on immune cells.

Shooshtarizadeh P1, Zhang D, Chich JF et al., Regul Pept. 2010 Nov 30;165(1):102-10. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2009.11.014. Epub 2009 Nov 20.

Two chromogranin a-derived peptides induce calcium entry in human neutrophils by calmodulin-regulated calcium independent phospholipase A2.

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides derived from the natural processing of chromogranin A (CgA) are co-secreted with catecholamines upon stimulation of chromaffin cells. Since PMNs play a central role in innate immunity, we examine responses by PMNs following stimulation by two antimicrobial CgA-derived peptides.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PMNs were treated with different concentrations of CgA-derived peptides in presence of several drugs. Calcium mobilization was observed by using flow cytometry and calcium imaging experiments. Immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy have shown the intracellular localization of the peptides. The calmodulin-binding and iPLA2 activating properties of the peptides were shown by Surface Plasmon Resonance and iPLA2 activity assays. Finally, a proteomic analysis of the material released after PMNs treatment with CgA-derived peptides was performed by using HPLC and Nano-LC MS-MS. By using flow cytometry we first observed that after 15 s, in presence of extracellular calcium, Chromofungin (CHR) or Catestatin (CAT) induce a concentration-dependent transient increase of intracellular calcium. In contrast, in absence of extra cellular calcium the peptides are unable to induce calcium depletion from the stores after 10 minutes exposure. Treatment with 2-APB (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate), a store operated channels (SOCs) blocker, inhibits completely the calcium entry, as shown by calcium imaging. We also showed that they activate iPLA2 as the two CaM-binding factors (W7 and CMZ) and that the two sequences can be aligned with the two CaM-binding domains reported for iPLA2. We finally analyzed by HPLC and Nano-LC MS-MS the material released by PMNs following stimulation by CHR and CAT. We characterized several factors important for inflammation and innate immunity.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the first time, we demonstrate that CHR and CAT, penetrate into PMNs, inducing extracellular calcium entry by a CaM-regulated iPLA2 pathway. Our study highlights the role of two CgA-derived peptides in the active communication between neuroendocrine and immune systems.

Zhang D, Shooshtarizadeh P, Laventie BJ et al., PLoS One. 2009;4(2):e4501. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004501. Epub 2009 Feb 19.

Library List

No.
Name:
Cat. #
No.
Name:
Cat. #
1
Annexin-1(2-26) (Human)
51
Ghrelin (Human)
2
Ac-PCP / CXCR Ligand
52
Ghrelin (Rat)
3
AcSDKP 
53
Ghrelin (Rat) (Des-Octanoyl3)
4
ACTH (Human)
54
Ghrelin C-terminal, Hexapeptide
5
Adrenomedulin (Human)
55
GIP (Human)
6
Alarin (Human)
56
GLP-1 (Human, Rat, Mouse, Porcine, Bovine, Canine, Ovine)
7
Alarin (Rat)
57
Guanylin (Human)
8
Preprosomatostatin (25-34) / Antrin / (Pro-Somatostatin 1-10) 
58
hSDF-1 / CXCR4 ligand (Human)
9
Prepro-Augurin (71-107) (Human)
59
Intermedin / Adrenomedullin-2 (Human) 
10
Prepro-Augurin (133-148) (Human) /C-terminal ECRG4
60
LL-37 (17-29) / cathelicidin (Human)
11
Beacon (1-73)/Ubiquitin-like protein 5 
61
LL-37 (Human)
12
Bombesin
62
GnRH (Human, Rat, Mouse, Porcine)
13
C19orf10 (32-98)-amide / Myeloid-derived growth factor (Human)
63
Mitocryptide-1 (MCT-1) (Human)
14
Catestatin (Human)
64
Mitocryptide-1 (MCT-2) (Human)
15
Catestatin (Rat)
65
MSH, Alpha (Human, Rat, Mouse)
16
Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP) (Human)
66
Nesfatin-1/ NUCB2(25-106), prepro (Human)
17
Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP) (Rat)
67
Neurokinin A, (Neuromedin L), (Substance K)
18
Chromofungin / Prepro-chromogranin A (65-84) (Human, Rat, Mouse, Porcine, Bovine)
68
Neurokinin B (Neuromedin K)
19
CRF (Human, Rat, Mouse, Canine, Feline)
69
Neuromedin N (Porcine)
20
Cortistatin-29 (Human)
70
Neuromedin U (Rat)
21
Cortistatin-17 (Human)
71
Neuromedin U-23 (Mouse)
22
Cortistain-14 (Rat)
72
Neuromedin U-25 (Human)
23
Cortistain-29 (Rat)
73
Neuromedin U-8 (Porcine)
24
Defensin 1, beta (Human)
74
Neuromedin U-9 (Mouse, Guinea Pig)
25
Defensin 111, beta (Human)
75
Prepro-Somatostatin (31-43) (Human, Porcine) / Neuronostatin-13 
26
Defensin 2, beta (Human)
76
Neuropeptide Y (Human, Rat, Mouse)
27
Defensin 3, beta (Human)
77
Neuropeptide S (Human)
28
Defensin 8, beta (Mouse)
78
Nociceptin / orphanin FQ ( H, R, M Ox)
29
Defensin I/ Human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1)
79
Neurotensin
30
β-Defensin 4 (Human) 
80
PACAP 38 (Human, Ovine, Rat)
31
Defensin, beta CBD103 (Canine)
81
PACAP-Related Peptide (PRP) (Human)
32
F2L /  HBP (1-21) Acetylated (Human, Canine, Porcine)
82
PACAP-Related Peptide (Rat)
33
FGL, NCAM-derived peptide
83
PEDF-44/Prepro-PEDF (78-121) (Human)
34
[Cys0]-fMLP-related Receptor 1 (Human)
84
PEDF-34/Prepro-PEDF (44-77) (Human)
35
Fractalkine chemokine domain (25-104) (Human)
85
PHI (Rat)
36
Galanin (1-16) (Porcine, Rat)
86
PHI (Human) / PHM-27, Human)
37
Galanin (1-19) (Human)
87
Peptide YY (PYY) (3-36) (Human)
38
Galanin (1-30), Prepro (Human)
88
phoenixin-20 amide
39
Galanin (Bovine)
89
Cadherin-23 isoform X12  (Human) / PR-39 (pig)
40
Galanin (Human)
90
Secretin (Human)
41
Galanin (Porcine)
91
Secretin (Mouse)
42
Galanin (Rat)
92
Secretin (Rat)
43
Galanin (108-123), Prepro (Porcine) (Galanin Message Associated Peptide 44-59)
93
Secretoneurin (Rat)
44
Galanin-like Peptide (Human)
94
Somatostatin
45
Galanin-like Peptide (Rat)
95
Somatostatin-28
46
Gastrin I (Human)
96
Substance P
47
Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP) (Human)
97
thymosin beta4
48
Ghrelin (1-14) (Human)
98
Thymus Activity Factor II (TAF -II)  (Bovine)
49
Ghrelin (1-5)-NH2
99
Urocortin  (Human)
50
Ghrelin (1-5)-NH2 (Des-Octanoyl3)
100
VIP (Human, Porcine, Rat)

L-013


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