Nesfatin-1 (82 amino acid) is an anorexigenic and insulinotropic peptide encoded in a secreted precursor, nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). Nucleobindin-1 (NUCB1) is a protein with very high sequence similarity to NUCB2. We hypothesized that a nesfatin-1 like peptide (NLP) is encoded in NUCB1, and this peptide is biologically active. In silico analysis found a signal peptide cleavage site at position 25 (Arginine) and 26 (Valine) preceding the NLP region in NUCB1 sequence, and potential proprotein convertase cleavage sites at Lys-Arg (KR), forming a 77 amino acid NLP. RT-PCR studies found NUCB1 mRNA in both pancreas and MIN6 cells. NUCB1-like immunoreactivity was detected in mouse insulinoma (MIN6) cells, and pancreatic islet beta cells of mice. In order to determine the biological activity of NLP, MIN6 cells were incubated with synthetic rat NLP. NLP (10nM and 100nM) upregulated preproinsulin mRNA expression and insulin secretion at 1h post-incubation. In identical experiments using MIN6 cells, a scrambled peptide based on the NLP sequence did not elicit any effects on preproinsulin mRNA expression or insulin secretion. From this result, it is clear that an intact NLP sequence is required for its biological activity. NLP appears as another endogenous insulinotropic peptide encoded in NUCB1.
Ramesh N, Mohan H, Unniappan S. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015 Apr 20. pii: S0016-6480(15)00111-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.04.011. [Epub ahead of print]
The nucleobindins, nucleobindin 1 (NUCB1) and nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), are homologous multidomain calcium and DNA binding proteins. NUCB1 is a well-characterized Golgi protein found within the rat pituitary, liver and kidney with functions related to immunity, calcium homeostasis and G protein signaling. NUCB2 is found both in the hypothalamus and brain stem centers, as well as peripherally in the digestive tract. Renewed interest in the nucleobindins has been sparked by the recent discovery of nesfatin-1, an endocrine factor post-translationally processed from the N-terminal of NUCB2. Nesfatin-1 has quickly established itself as a novel regulator of appetite, insulin secretion, energy homeostasis and reproduction with important consequences to the etiology of metabolic diseases including diabetes and obesity. The discovery of nesfatin-1 and it endocrine functions attracted more attention to the nucleobindins that are already known to have important intracellular functions. From the sequence information available, it is possible that nucelobindins itself or nesfatin-1 like peptides within the NUCB1 could also elicit nesfatin-1-like biological functions. The research on nesfatin-1 in last 5 years further adds to the importance of nucleobindins as potential endocrine precursors. This review aims to summarize some of the most recent findings on the functional significance of NUCB1, NUCB2, as well as encoded proteins and highlights the questions that remain unanswered.
Gonzalez R1, Mohan H, Unniappan S, Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012 May 1;176(3):341-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.11.021. Epub 2011 Dec 3.