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Obesity Biomarker Array
Relation between Adipokines/Peptides and Obesity/Diabetes
Evidence of CNS play an important role to control metabolism

Additional newly discovered obesity related peptides (latest update: 9/9/2012):

Irisin
Oxyntomodulin and Glicentin-related Polypeptide (Human)
Feeding Circuit-Activating Peptide (FCAP)

List of all Obesity Related Peptides:

ACTH CRSP JKC-362 RBP-4
Adiponectin Desnutrin JKC-363 Relaxin
Adropin Dynorphin Leptin Resistin
AGRP Endorphin Beta MCH Secretin
Alarin Fat Targeted Peptide MSH Alpha Somatostatin
AM/ADM Galanin MT II SFRP2
AMPK(AICAR) Ghrelin Musclin / Osteocrin SFRP5
Angiotensin GALP Neuromedin TIP39
Apelin GHRF Neuronostatin TNF Alpha
Autotoxin(ATX) GLP-1 Neurotensin TRH
Beacon GOAT Inhibitors NPW/NPB UCP3
Bombesin GRP NPY Urocortin II and III
Bombinakinin-GAP HMGIC Obestatin Visfatin
Brevinin-1 HS014 Orexin A/B Xenin-25
CCK IGF-I Oxyntomodulin  
C-Peptide IL-6 PACAP38  
CART In2-Ghrelin Palustrin-1C  
Compound 7 Insulin POMC  
Conglycinin Beta Intermedin ProSAAS  
CRF Irisin PYY3-36  


* Although pharmacological studies have demonstrated β-endorphin (β-End) to stimulate feeding in variety of animals, recent demonstration of hyperphagia and obesity in β-End knockout male mice suggests that endogenous β-End may have anorexic effect in regulating energy homeostasis.

Abhiram Sahu. Endocrinology. First published March 24, 2004 as doi:10.1210/en.2004-0032

Irisin
  
 
Related Article: Irisin
 
 

 

Adipocyte-derived-Factors
   
  
 

 

Orphan GPCR and Obesity
  

 
   
 

 Xu Y.L. et al. European Journal of Pharmacology 500 (2004) 243– 253

 

 
   
 

 

Overproduction of adipocyte-derived factors and associated pathophysiological complications. LPL, lipoprotein lipase.
 

 


 
 

 


 

 
 

 

The adipocyte: a model for integration of endocrine and
metabolic signaling in energy metabolism regulation
 

 

 

GEMA FRU?HBECK, et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 280: E827-E847, 2001.

 
 

 

 

 

Overproduction of adipocyte-derived factors and associated
pathophysiological complications. LPL, lipoprotein lipase

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 
 
 
 



 



 

The body produces hormones that act through the brain to regulate short-
and long-term appetite and also the body's metabolism. The diagram shows the sources of several of the hormones now under intensive investigation.

 

The diagram shows the sources of several of the hormones now
under intensive investigation.

Marx J. Science. 299, 846-849.

 
 

  

 

Many different hormones control our weight and appetite. The discovery of new peptide hormones, which suppresses appetite for up to 12 hours, may lead to a better understanding of this complex control system

 
 
 

 

 

Hormones that control eating such as, leptin and insulin (lower part of the figure) circulate in the blood at concentrations proportional to body-fat mass. They decrease appetite by inhibiting neurons (centre) that produce the molecules NPY and AGRP, while stimulating melanocortin-producing neurons in the arcuate-nucleus region of the hypothalamus, near the third ventricle of the brain. NPY and AGRP stimulate eating, and melanocortins inhibit eating, via other neurons (top). Activation of NPY/AGRP-expressing neurons inhibits melanocortin-producing neurons. The gastric hormone, ghrelin stimulates appetite by activating the NPY/AGRP-expressing neurons. Batterham and co-workers have shown that PYY (3-36), released from the colon, inhibits these neurons and thereby decreases appetite for up to 12 hours. PYY (3-36) works in part through the auto-inhibitory NPY receptor Y2R.

Schwartz M.W. & Mortin G.J. Nature. 418 , 595 - 597 (2002).

 
  

 


Central command Centers

 
 
 

 

 

The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the brain contains two sets of neurons with opposing effects. Activation of the AGRP/NPY neurons increases appetite and metabolism, whereas activation of the POMC/CART neurons has the opposite effect. These neurons connect with second-order neurons in other brain centers, and from there the signals are transmitted through the nucleus tratus solitarius (NTS) to the body. Many appetite-regulating hormones work through the ARC, although they may have direct effects on the NTS and other brain centers as well.

Schwartz M.W. & Mortin G.J. Nature. 418 , 595 - 597 (2002).

 
  
 

 

 
 

 

 

 
  



References

  1. Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents.
    Matthias Tscho?p, David L. Smiley & Mark L. Heiman, Nature, 407, 908-913 (October 19,2000).
  2. Identification of receptors for neuromedin U and its role in feeding.
    Howard A. D., et al., Nature 406 , 70-75 (July 6, 2000)
  3. Alternative role for prolactin-releasing peptide in the regulation of food intake.
    Lawrence CB, et al., Nat Neurosci 2000 Jul;3(7):645-646
  4. Obesity in the new millennium.
    Friedman J. M., Nature 404, 632-634
  5. Centrol Nervous System Control of Food Intake.
    Schwartz M. W. et al. , Nature 404, 661-671
  6. Medical Strategies in the treatment of obesity.
    Bray G. A. and Tartagliat L. A., Nature 404,672-677
  7. Genetics of body-weight regulation.
    Barsh G. S. et al., Nature 404,644-651
  8. Obesity as a medical Problem.
    Kopelman P. G. Nature 404, 635-643
  9. Overweight, Obesity, and Mortality from Cancer in a Prospectively Studied Cohort of U.S. Adults
    Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond, K, and Thun M J. New England J. of Med 2003 Apr: 348 (17): 1625-1638
  10. The emerging science of body weight regulation and its impact on obesity treatment.
    Korner, J. and Aronne LJ. J. Clin. Invest. (2003). 111: 565-570

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